Physiology and Anatomy




Endurance

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Does a Cool Down Period Help You Recover from Training?

Answer: It probably does, though of course it depends on the level and type of training.

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Specificity Principle (Specificity of Exercise Training or SAID)

Specificity has to do with the specific responses that occur as a result of training. In order for long-term physiological changes or adaptations to occur, a repeated, or chronic, stimuli must be applied to the body, along with progressive overload. This means for new levels of fitness to be achieved, an exercise (the stimulus) must be repeated often over a period of time. The specificity principle states that these metabolic or physiologic changes are specific to the muscular, cardiorespiratory, and neurologic responses that are required by the exercise activity. The patterns of muscle firing, and the cardiorespiratory responses are the two variables that have the most specific change.Bibliography item ehrman not found.,Bibliography item mcardle not found. The specificity principle is also known as SAID or Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands.

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Soda Loading (Bicarbonate Loading, Buffer Boosting) for High Intensity Anaerobic Endurance

During high intensity anaerobic events, the muscles fatigue and energy supply is compromised because of the buildup of lactic acid from glycolysis. Athletes in high intensity events that last 2 to 10 minutes, such as a 400 to 800 or 1500 meter running races or middle distance swimming races sometimes use soda loading in an attempt to neutralize the lactic acid that accumulates in the blood. Depending on interpretation of the research, some experts suggest that the benefit is limited to events of 1 to 7 minute duration. Soda loading is also called buffer boosting or bicarbonate loading. It is also called, more rarely, soda doping or simply acid buffering.

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All-Or-None Response (Of Muscle Fibers)

All-or-none Response: Phenomenon in which a muscle fiber contracts completely when exposed to a threshold stimulus, or not at all. When a skeletal muscle is stimulated to contract by a motor neuron a minimum amount of stimulus is needed to start the process of muscle contraction.

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Actin

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Active Insufficiency

Active insufficiency occurs when a multi-joint muscle reaches a length (shortened) where it can no longer apply an effective force. To demonstrate active insufficiency one can fully flex (bend) the knee on one leg while simultaneously trying to bring that leg back to achieve full hip extension. Hip extension will be limited because the hamstrings are unable to shorten enough to produce a complete range of motion. Some will also notice a cramping in the hamstring muscles during this maneuver. By the same token, if you try bringing back your hip into a hyper-extended position (bringing your leg behind you), and then bending your knee, you will find that your knee flexion is limited. The hamstrings can only perform one of these functions well at one time. When both are attempted at the same time, the muscle essentially goes "slack" and is unable to contract effectively because it is already well shortened. Straightening the leg (extending the knee) should restore full range of hip extension motion and the difference will be significant. Active insufficiency reflects the inability of a multijoint muscle to apply an adequate force in all degrees of motion.

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Action Potential

An action potential is an electrical signal that passes along the membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber. When an applied electrical stimulus is beyond a certain level called the threshold of excitation, a massive depolarization of the membrane occurs.

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Alkalosis

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Acidosis

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Acid-Base Balance

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Accommodation

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Acclimatization

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I-band

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