The brachialis muscle is located on the front part of the upper arm, nearest the elbow. Along with the biceps brachii and the brachioradialis, it is one of the primary flexors of the elbow. It gets its name from the Greek words brachialis and brachion, pertaining to the (upper) arm. It is important not to confuse these words with the Greek brachy which means "short." Although not as large as the biceps brachii, the brachialis is a relatively large and wide muscle and these two muscles, along with the coracobrachialis, make up the anterior (front) compartment of the upper arm. Unlike the biceps brachii, which attaches to the radius, the brachialis attaches to the ulna, making it suited for flexion of the elbow only, since it can only pull on the ulna and the ulna does not rotate. However, it provides strong elbow flexion in both supination and pronation.Bibliography item doyle not found.,Bibliography item simons not found.
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. It generally affects the hands, wrists, knees, and feet, although any joint can be affected.
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The teres major muscle is a small, round muscle lying along the lateral border of the scapula. It forms the inferior border of both the triangular space and quadrangular space. The muscle gets its name from its shape and size. Teres means "round" in Latin, and the term major refers to it being the larger of two muscles, the teres minor muscle lying just superior to the major. Both the teres major and minor are similar in shape, only the major is larger. It can be palpated in the trough between the lateral scapula and the latissumus dorsi, but is deeper than the lattisumus.
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The extensor digitorum1 muscle gets its name from the Greek and Latin ex which means "out of", and the Latin tendere, which means "to stretch". So an extensor is a muscle that stretches out or straightens out a joint. The word digitorum is from Latin, indicating the digits or fingers. Communis is Latin for "common" and it refers to a muscle which has several branches or structures.Bibliography item doyle not found.
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Allodynia is pain caused by a stimuli which does not normally cause pain. An example is cutaneous allodynia which is pain caused by normal activities involving the skin such as brushing the hair, shaving, showering and other daily grooming activities. Sometimes intense pain can occur from the slightest brushing against the skin so that even clothing can cause agony. Sometimes this pain occurs in other areas than the area where the stimulus occurs but it is not the same thing as referred pain.
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Bruxism is the act of gnashing and grinding the teeth. Bruxism is common in children and adults of both sexes, affecting about 25-30% of children and roughly one in twenty adults. There is no significant difference between males and females .
Bruxism is divided into two main types- Nighttime grinding and daytime grinding. Nighttime grinding (nocturnal bruxism) is a back and forth, side-to-side motion where the lower teeth rub against the upper teeth, creating a characteristic grinding sound. Daytime grinding (clenching) is a rocking motion of the lower teeth against the upper teeth without the teeth actually making the side-to-side motion. While bruxing only happens during sleep, clenching can occur both during the day and at night . Both nocturnal bruxism and clenching are “parafunctional activities,” as they are not part of normal chewing and swallowing.
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By Eric Troy, Ground Up Strength
If you ask a doctor what shin splints are you probably will not get a straight answer. That is because there are no straight answers to give. Shin splints is the generic name we use for any leg pain that is below the knee and above the ankle. The term is nondescriptive and does not refer to any one type of pain or pathophysiology. It is often called a "wastebasket" diagnosis.
Shin splints therefore should not be considered an adequate diagnosis of chronic lower leg pain as this will offer no guidance to treatment and avoidance. Basically, if your doctor tells you that you have shin splints they are basically telling you that you have shin pain, which you probably already knew!
However, there is a typical pain syndrome, called Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome, that can be considered somewhat synonymous with shin splints. This syndrome causes pain that usually occurs in the lateral front of the lower leg or more to the inside of the lower leg, called the "posteromedial" region. It is most common following repetitive running and jumping activities such as running, volleyball, and soccer. There are many articles that will run through all the complexities of shin pain and try to tell you the truth about shin splints by dumping data about all the many causes..but most of them are rare compared to MTSS.
The splenius muscles are broad and thin, getting their name from the Greek word splenium, meaning bandage. Capitus comes from the Latin word for head, caput which refers to the origin of the splenius capitus on the mastoid process and adjacent occipital bone of the skull, underneath the sternocleidomastoid. Cervicus derives from the Latin word cervix which pertains to the neck, referring to the splenius cervicus having its origin on the cervical spine. Bibliography item arnold not found.,Bibliography item simons not found.
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Tarsal tunnel syndrome is condition where the posterior tibial nerve in the ankle is compressed. In many ways, this condition is analogous to carpal tunnel syndrome in the hand where the median nerve is compressed. The posterior tibial nerve divides into three branches that include the calcaneal, medial plantar, and lateral plantar nerve branches, all of which innervate different parts of the foot and ankle.
With tarsal tunnel syndrome, compression of the tibial nerve occurs within a tunnel created by a floor consisting of the calcaneus (heel bone) and bounded by the medial malleolus- the bump on the inside part of the ankle- and the far corner of the heel bone. The roof of the tarsal tunnel is formed by a retinaculum- a tough piece of fibrous tissue.
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The term "shingles" refers to a condition caused by the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chicken pox disease. After a person has had the chicken pox, the virus remains dormant, residing in nerve cells. Later on, as a result of many different factors, the virus may reactivate and leave the nerve cell and this is what causes herpes zoster, or shingles.
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- What is Bursitis? Its Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention