Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health.
Continue Reading » Vitamin B12 In Health And Disease
In recent years vitamin B6 has become a focus of research describing the compound’s critical function in cellular metabolism and stress response. For many years the sole function of vitamin B6 was considered to be that of an enzymatic cofactor. However, recently it became clear that it is also a potent antioxidant that effectively quenches reactive oxygen species and is thus of high importance for cellular well-being. In view of the recent findings, the current review takes a look back and summarizes the discovery of vitamin B6 and the elucidation of its structure and biosynthetic pathways. It provides a detailed overview on vitamin B6 both as a cofactor and a protective compound. Besides these general characteristics of the vitamin, the review also outlines the current literature on vitamin B6 derivatives and elaborates on recent findings that provide new insights into transport and catabolism of the compound and on its impact on human health.
Continue Reading » Vitamin B6: Functions, Complexities, and History
The Calorie (kcal) of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet) defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1°C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced.
Continue Reading » Calorie Confusion: The History of the Calorie
By Jamie Hale
Over the past two decades the sale of organic foods has increased annually nearly 20%. Today’s organic food system includes a combination of small and large food producers, local and global distribution networks, and a wide variety of products including processed foods, fruits, vegetables, meats and dairy [Bibliography item Winter not found.]. Recent food crises such as mad cow disease and foot-and-mouth disease may have decreased consumer confidence in conventional foods and swayed their buying tendencies to what they perceive as safer foods – Organic, All Natural Foods.
Continue Reading » Organic Food: The Real Story
In 2004 it was estimated and reported in the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCP ) that approximately two percent of adults and about five percent of infants and young children in the United States suffer from food allergies and each year, roughly 30,000 individuals require emergency room treatment and 150 individuals die because of allergic reactions to food.
Continue Reading » Food Labeling For Food Allergens
Minerals are central to human nutrition and many are involved in uncountable biological functions. Minerals constitute only about four percent of the body's weight but their importance should not be overlooked, and it was the observance of minerals in the composition of the body's tissues and fluids that clued us in to their importance in human nutrition.
Certain minerals are found in greater abundance in the body and these minerals are referred to as macrominerals. Read more about them below or see our Youtube presentation.
Continue Reading » Macrominerals
The information in the main or top section, can vary with each food product but contains a number of mandatory listings. Every food label MUST provide this information in this standard format. They are:
Continue Reading » How To Read Food Labels
Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.
Continue Reading » Minerals and Sports Performance
Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.
Fish oil paranoia is rampant right now.
Of course you do need to be careful what fish oil products you use. There is always some contaminated product floating around out there. Even some of the nutritional experts seem to be a little misled, however. Perhaps because they have more money than I it’s easy to get lazy and assume more expensive means better quality.
Continue Reading » Fish Oil Quality
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- Food education fear and romanticized
- Most diseases are caused by poor nutrition
- Calories from Lipids (Fats), Carbohydrate, and Protein
- Consuming Whey Protein and Poor Appetite in Strength Training
- Eat This, Not That! Site Cooking the Protein Numbers with Six Foods Compared to Eggs
- Essential Fatty Acids (EFA's)
- Food Oil Fatty Acid Content List: Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated
- Grass Fed Versus Grain Fed Beef: Fatty Acid Profiles, Antioxidant Content and Taste
- Food Allergies
- Food And Drug Administration (FDA)
- Food Labels
- Milk and Dairy
- Organic Food: The Real Story
- The Dangers of Raw Milk and the Claims of its Magical Healing Powers
- The Origins of Lactase Persistence in Europe
- Mistaken Reasons that People Take Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
- Natural and Processed Food, Nutritionism and Pollanisms
- Nutrient Timing Articles
- Nutrition is Not a Top Ten Proposition and the Lycopene Bust
- Nutrition Junk Science: Red Flags That Help You Spot It!
- Nutrition Research: Industry Sponsorhip of Nutrition Research
- "Processed" Food Has Become A Dirty Word
- Amino Acids
- Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs
- Dietary Protein and Kidney Function
- Greek Yogurt: Twice The Protein
- Protein Powders are Synthetic Poison!
- Whey Protein
- Raw Food Claim: Your Body Has a Limited Amount of Enzymes to Digest Foods
- Splenda Kills Healthy Intestinal Bacteria?
- Forbes Article Says Protein Supplements Being Sued for Failing to Meet Protein Content Claims
- I'm Lactose Intolerant, Can I Still Use Whey Protein?
- Supplement Rationale, Behavour, and Expertise
- Tryptophan Supplements: Do They Work and Are They Dangerous?
- What is Acesulfame Potassium Doing in Whey Protein Products?
- Why You Should NOT Use Colloidal Silver Products
- Surprising New Nutrition Finding: Nutrition Articles on News Sites Suck
- The Aspartame Myth-information Campaign: You Can Live Without It
- The Role Of Soy In Vegetarian Diets
- Top Vitamin C Containing Fruits
- B Vitamins
- The Role of Phytonutrients Like Vitamin E and Beta-Carotene in Skin Health
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin E and C for Strength and Bodybuilding: Should You Take Them for Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress?
- Vitamins and Sports Performance
- What are Coenzymes?
- What are the Major Elements and Molecules in the Human Body?
- What is Denaturing Of Proteins and Why Do Some People Make a Big Deal of It?
- What Is Nutrient Density? What is a Nutrient Dense Food? Plus, What are Empty Calories?
- What is Sweet Dairy Whey and Can I Use it as a Whey Protein Supplement?
- Whey Protein Processing, Terms and Definitions: Countering the Misconceptions About Whey Protein Including 'Raw' Whey