Health and Health Conditions

Abdominal Hernia

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Amenorrhea is the absence or suppression of menstruation in females. Excessive training in females can sometimes lead to this. Excessive training combined with restricted eating leading to amenorrhea (for 3 to 6 consecutive cycles) and osteoporosis is sometimes considered a syndrome referred to as the female athlete triad].

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How to Recognize and What to Do About Allergic Reactions to Bee and Wasp Stings

If you or someone you know just got stung and you are having any of the following symtpoms:

  • choking
  • trouble breathing
  • feeling faint or dizzy
  • experiencing generalized (other than the sting site) hives, itching, or swelling
  • dilated pupils
  • blueness around lips and mouth (or other blueness of skin other than the sting site)
  • any other generalized reactions other than on the area of the sting itself:


ACTIVATE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES by calling 911 or the appropriate telephone number for your country. Tell the operator that someone is having a severe reaction to a sting and may be suffering from anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-lak-sis). You are having a systemic reaction to a bee or wasp sting, which should be considered a medical emergency. Otherwise, read on to learn more about systemic allergic reactions to bee or wasp stings.

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Acid-Base Balance

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Bruxism: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Bruxism is the act of gnashing and grinding the teeth. Bruxism is common in children and adults of both sexes, affecting about 25-30% of children and roughly one in twenty adults. There is no significant difference between males and females [1].

Bruxism is divided into two main types- Nighttime grinding and daytime grinding. Nighttime grinding (nocturnal bruxism) is a back and forth, side-to-side motion where the lower teeth rub against the upper teeth, creating a characteristic grinding sound. Daytime grinding (clenching) is a rocking motion of the lower teeth against the upper teeth without the teeth actually making the side-to-side motion. While bruxing only happens during sleep, clenching can occur both during the day and at night [2]. Both nocturnal bruxism and clenching are “parafunctional activities,” as they are not part of normal chewing and swallowing.

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Inventing the Couch Potato: An Exercise Myth That Needs to Go Away

I've talked about the athlete fallacy many times. This fallacy is a notion advanced by some fitness trainers and strength coaches, who say that everyone should train like an athlete. This fallacy is related to exercise guilt and the feeling that if you are not "going all the way" you are doing something wrong, wasting your time, may as well not bother, etc. and so on.

Also related to this idea, intrinsic to it really, is the idea that you must regularly go to the gym and engage in an exercise program or training plan in order to derive any health benefits from exercise. So, in other words, it takes a few weeks to a month to see any true benefit because that benefit is always from the cumulative results of regular exercise.

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Metabolically-Healthy Obesity

This is a each part of a 5-part series delving into the fascinating and seemingly paradoxical research on people who despite being obese, remain metabolically-healthy.

Is Metabolically Healthy Obesity an Oxymoron?

To date, countless epidemiological studies have shown that as you move from a normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) towards overweight (BMI = 25-29.9kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) the risk of many diseases increases exponentially.

Does this imply that every individual carrying excess weight is guaranteed to develop diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or some other disease?

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Cam Domains (Categories of Complementary and Alternative Medicine)

The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) divides CAM practices into four broad domains; it is recognized that there could be some crossover among the CAM domains. NCCAM also studies CAM systems that cut across all four domains (they are called whole medical system).

The four domains are:

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Can Shingles Cause Pain in the Shoulder Blades?

The term "shingles" refers to a condition caused by the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chicken pox disease. After a person has had the chicken pox, the virus remains dormant, residing in nerve cells. Later on, as a result of many different factors, the virus may reactivate and leave the nerve cell and this is what causes herpes zoster, or shingles.

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How Strength Training Justifies Being Overweight

I was just reading a review of Mark Young's new "How to Read Fitness Research" product. A few questions occurred to me. One, what in the heck is fitness research? There are so many different types of studies and different types of subjects, all of which could fall under the "fitness" umbrella. Many of these have their own specific pitfalls and unique challenges. A person would need to have a more thorough background in the sub-disciplines before simply "learning how to read a study".

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Diet and Acne: What is the Evidence?

Acne sufferers have been reporting an association between specific food intake and acne outbreaks for many years. For instance, many many people have claimed that chocolate consumption either exacerbated or caused acne outbreaks. In fact, that chocolate causes acne was once accepted as fact by the lay public. Fatty foods are also frequently implicated. Milk and dairy products have been long associated with acne as well. However most studies have failed to find a correlation between diet and acne and it was long concluded that genetic predisposition and hormonal factors played the largest role.

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What Are Diuretics and Why are They Used in Sports and Bodybuilding?

A diuretic is any agent that acts to increase urine. Diuretics increase the excretion of water and electrolytes from the body's fluids. They thereby decrease the extracellular fluid volume. They are used to adjust the volume or composition of the body fluids in many different clinical situations such as high blood pressure, heart failure, renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. The common name for diuretic drugs are "water pills."

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Idiopathic (Primary) Achalasia

Idiopathic achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and abnormal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in response to deglutition. It is a rare disease with an annual incidence of approximately 1/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 1/10,000. The disease can occur at any age, with a similar rate in men and women, but is usually diagnosed between 25 and 60 years. It is characterized predominantly by dysphagia to solids and liquids, bland regurgitation, and chest pain. Weight loss (usually between 5 to 10 kg) is present in most but not in all patients. Heartburn occurs in 27%–42% of achalasia patients. Etiology is unknown. Some familial cases have been reported, but the rarity of familial occurrence does not support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance is a significant etiologic factor. Association of achalasia with viral infections and auto-antibodies against myenteric plexus has been reported, but the causal relationship remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on history of the disease, radiography (barium esophagogram), and esophageal motility testing (esophageal manometry). Endoscopic examination is important to rule out malignancy as the cause of achalasia. Treatment is strictly palliative. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options (pneumatic dilation, surgical myotomy, and pharmacologic agents) aimed at reducing the LES pressure and facilitating esophageal emptying by gravity and hydrostatic pressure of retained food and liquids. Although it cannot be permanently cured, excellent palliation is available in over 90% of patients.

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