Health and Health Conditions

Some Useful Singular and Plural Forms of Medical and Anatomical Terms

The plurals of medical, anatomical, and other scientific terms, having derived from Greek or Latin roots, do not follow the usual familiar rules of English.

The difference between diagnosis and diagnoses, for instance, isn't readily apparent to most people, although adding -es to the end of the word is often a way to make it plural, as we do for English words ending in z, s, x, ch, or sh. But this does not tell us what to do with scientific words like diagnosis. And there is no such word as "diagnosises." So what gives? There are some basic rules to remember to help you distinguish the singular and plural forms of medical terms. This page will run through some of these rules and list examples of each. Each rule is based on the singular form of "words ending in" a particular combination of letters.

Keep in mind, as you are using these guidelines, that they represent what is usually the rule. As with any grammar rules, they do not hold true in all instances.

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What Is the Babinski Reflex?

The Babinski reflex or Babinski sign is pathalogical (altered or abnormal) reflex of the lower limb which indicates damage to the corticospinal tracts of the spinal cord. These pathways are also called the pyramidal tracts after the pyramid-shaped parts of the medulla oblongata through which they pass. To elicit the Babinski reflex, an examiner forcefully strokes the edge of the bottom of a patient's foot (lateral plantar surface or sole) with a moderately sharp object from the heel to the toes. The Babinski reflex is named after its discoverer, Joseph Babinski, who described it in 1896.

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Black Heel and Black Palm (Talon Noir and Tâche Noir)

Black heel, also called talon noir or calcaneal petechiae is the appearance of painless bluish-black dots on the heels of the feet that are caused by mechanical trauma. This also may occur on the palms, and when this happens it is called black palm or tâche noir.1

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What is Adaptive Muscle Shortening?

A muscle can change its functional resting length to adapt to the length at which the muscle is habitually used or positioned. This is called adaptive shortening.

Adaptive Shortening Example

An example of this type of muscle shortening is the shortening of the iliopsoas (one-joint hip flexors) in individuals who are confined to a wheelchair or who must spend most of their day sitting. Another example is the wearing of high-heeled shoes, which can cause adaptive shortening of the soleus since the foot must remain in plantar flexion. Adaptive shortening of muscles causes postural distortions which result in a further imbalance between opposing pairs of muscle.

Muscle Shortening Causes

Adaptive Shortening is muscle tightness caused by a muscle being forced to remain in a shortened position for a prolonged period of time, being unable to lengthen due to the relaxation of the antagonist group.

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Baking Soda and Vinegar for Bee Stings: It Works! But not Really.

You got stung by a bee, put some baking soda and vinegar on it, and ten minutes later the pain was gone! It worked. OR, maybe there is another explanation. Maybe you are not allergic to bee stings, had a minor local reaction, and the pain simply went away on its on. I personally seldom have the pain from a bee sting last longer than 10 or 20 minutes and I forget all about it. Yep.

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20 Home Remedies for Treating Minor Burns: Not!

Instead of listing out twenty tips in an obviously deceitful display of "yeah right you gullible fool," all I really need to say is this: Pick twenty random things from around your house that can be smeared on a burn, poured on a burn, etc. And you have your twenty home remedy tips.

Soy sauce. Mustard. Vinegar. Hey, take some chewing tobacco, chew it up real good, and spit it on your burns. I swear, it works wonders. My grandmother used to swear on it for bee stings, too. The point is it doesn't matter what I say, there is someone who will believe it.

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Overview of Categories of Controlled Substances in the United States

Controlled substances, are defined by The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Actu of 1970, which is usually referred to simply as the Controlled Substances Act. This act established the current categories of controlled substances by dividing them into five areas, called "schedules." Drugs classified in this manner are those which are considered to have a greater potential for abuse than prescriptions drugs. Schedule I drugs have the highest potential for abuse and schedule I the lowest. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is responsible for the regulation of controlled drugs, including oversight of manufacturing, distribution, storage and dispensing.

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Sports Induced Acne From Helmets, Pads, and Other Gear

Acne caused by sports activities is often a type of acne called acne mechanica. This acne is caused by the combination of pressure, friction, heat, humidity, and occlusion. Any repeated and prolonged mechanical irritation to the skin, such as rubbing, pressure, friction, pinching or pulling can produce these inflammatory papules and pustules.1 Severe cases may progress to nodules and cysts. Rather than being a primary acne, it is an exacerbation of an underlying acne, where the inflammatory lesions become much worse.

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Abdominal Hernia

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Amenorrhea is the absence or suppression of menstruation in females. Excessive training in females can sometimes lead to this. Excessive training combined with restricted eating leading to amenorrhea (for 3 to 6 consecutive cycles) and osteoporosis is sometimes considered a syndrome referred to as the female athlete triad].

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How to Recognize and What to Do About Allergic Reactions to Bee and Wasp Stings

If you or someone you know just got stung and you are having any of the following symtpoms:

  • choking
  • trouble breathing
  • feeling faint or dizzy
  • experiencing generalized (other than the sting site) hives, itching, or swelling
  • dilated pupils
  • blueness around lips and mouth (or other blueness of skin other than the sting site)
  • any other generalized reactions other than on the area of the sting itself:


ACTIVATE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES by calling 911 or the appropriate telephone number for your country. Tell the operator that someone is having a severe reaction to a sting and may be suffering from anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-lak-sis). You are having a systemic reaction to a bee or wasp sting, which should be considered a medical emergency. Otherwise, read on to learn more about systemic allergic reactions to bee or wasp stings.

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