Ergogenics

Ergolytic Agents: Substances and Other Agents that Impair Performance

Ergolytic is the opposite of ergogenic. It is derived from the Greek word ergon, meaning "work" and -lytic, which is the adjective form of the Greek word lysos, meaning "loosing, dissolving, or dissolution." The term ergolytic is used to refer to an agent, device, or factor that impairs athletic performance rather than enhances it. This impairment can be the result of physiological or psychological factors. Some common ergolytic agents are alcohol, tobacco (including smokeless), and marijuana.

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Soda Loading (Bicarbonate Loading, Buffer Boosting) for High Intensity Anaerobic Endurance

During high intensity anaerobic events, the muscles fatigue and energy supply is compromised because of the buildup of lactic acid from glycolysis. Athletes in high intensity events that last 2 to 10 minutes, such as a 400 to 800 or 1500 meter running races or middle distance swimming races sometimes use soda loading in an attempt to neutralize the lactic acid that accumulates in the blood. Depending on interpretation of the research, some experts suggest that the benefit is limited to events of 1 to 7 minute duration. Soda loading is also called buffer boosting or bicarbonate loading. It is also called, more rarely, soda doping or simply acid buffering.

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Peformance Enhancing Drugs Other Than Anabolic Steroids Used in Sports

Although most people, when they think of "performance enhancing drugs," only think of anabolic steroids, there is actually a large array of drugs that are used to enhance various aspects of performance. Some basic categories of drugs that are used in this way, including steroids, are stimulants, beta blockers, beta-2 agonists, diuretics, narcotic analgesics, and the oxygen increasing drug epoetin.

Since all such drugs are meant to be prescribed and used for specific medical conditions, using them as ergogenic aids can be very dangerous and such use should be considered abuse. This is especially true since athletes often take drugs in doses that far exceed normal therapeutic doses, and side effects, in some drugs, can occur even at normal levels. The side effects of a drug may also depend on the person's metabolism and whether other drugs are used at the same time. The following is a list of categories of performance enhancing drugs, their intended effect on performance, and their potential side-effects, starting with a brief review of anabolic steroids.

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The Creatine Transporter: A Brief Review of Creatine Supplementation in Humans and Animals

Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize the increase within the intracellular pool of total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine).

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Caffeine And Sports Performance

Research on the physiological effects of caffeine in relation to human sport performance is extensive. In fact, investigations continue to emerge that serve to delineate and expand existing science. Caffeine research in specific areas of interest, such as endurance, strength, team sport, recovery, and hydration is vast and at times, conflicting. Therefore, the intention of this position statement is to summarize and highlight the scientific literature, and effectively guide researchers, practitioners, coaches, and athletes on the most suitable and efficient means to apply caffeine supplementation to mode of exercise, intensity, and duration.

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