Doping




Soda Loading (Bicarbonate Loading, Buffer Boosting) for High Intensity Anaerobic Endurance

During high intensity anaerobic events, the muscles fatigue and energy supply is compromised because of the buildup of lactic acid from glycolysis. Athletes in high intensity events that last 2 to 10 minutes, such as a 400 to 800 or 1500 meter running races or middle distance swimming races sometimes use soda loading in an attempt to neutralize the lactic acid that accumulates in the blood. Depending on interpretation of the research, some experts suggest that the benefit is limited to events of 1 to 7 minute duration. Soda loading is also called buffer boosting or bicarbonate loading. It is also called, more rarely, soda doping or simply acid buffering.

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Peformance Enhancing Drugs Other Than Anabolic Steroids Used in Sports

Although most people, when they think of "performance enhancing drugs," only think of anabolic steroids, there is actually a large array of drugs that are used to enhance various aspects of performance. Some basic categories of drugs that are used in this way, including steroids, are stimulants, beta blockers, beta-2 agonists, diuretics, narcotic analgesics, and the oxygen increasing drug epoetin.

Since all such drugs are meant to be prescribed and used for specific medical conditions, using them as ergogenic aids can be very dangerous and such use should be considered abuse. This is especially true since athletes often take drugs in doses that far exceed normal therapeutic doses, and side effects, in some drugs, can occur even at normal levels. The side effects of a drug may also depend on the person's metabolism and whether other drugs are used at the same time. The following is a list of categories of performance enhancing drugs, their intended effect on performance, and their potential side-effects, starting with a brief review of anabolic steroids.

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Ergogenics

Ergogenics: Commonly called ergogenic aids. Derived from the Greek word for "work", ergon, and genman, meaning "to generate or produce," the term ergogenic means increasing work or the potential to do work.

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What Are Diuretics and Why are They Used in Sports and Bodybuilding?

A diuretic is any agent that acts to increase urine. Diuretics increase the excretion of water and electrolytes from the body's fluids. They thereby decrease the extracellular fluid volume. They are used to adjust the volume or composition of the body fluids in many different clinical situations such as high blood pressure, heart failure, renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. The common name for diuretic drugs are "water pills."

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Athlete Drug Tests: Anti-Doping Officials Want Tougher Penalties

According to this associated press article at NBC's Universal Sports site, international anti-doping officials want four-year bans, not two, for athletes who fail drug tests. According to World Anti-Doping Agency Director General David Howman, clean athletes "don't want to be lining up against people who cheat," he said. "They get a two-year penalty and, quick as a flash, they're back again."

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