Bone




What Is The Wrist?

The part of the body that most people think of as their wrist is actually the distal end of their radius and ulna bones, or, in other words the end of their arm bones.

The wrist itself, however, also called the carpus from the latin, is actually made up of eight small bones called carpal bones.

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Foramen

Foramen: A foramen is an opening in a bone that allows structures to pass through, such as nerves and blood vessels. The cranium of the skull has many such openings in its floor, most notably the foramen magnum, located on the base of the occipital bone, which allows the spinal cord to pass through. Although the spinal cord is continuous with the brain, it is said to begin at the level of this opening. Other such foramina (plural for foramen) of the cranium are the foramen lacerum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosium, greater palantine foramen, incisive foramen, foramen rotundum, intraorbital foramen, jugular foramen, mandibular foramen, and others. See The Axial Skeleton for more information about the skull. A foramen is sometimes referred to as a canal when it is a narrow tube, channel, or passageway rather than just an opening.

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Ostealgia (Ostalgia, Osteodynia)

Ostealgia: Also spelled ostalgia, and sometimes called osteodynia, ostealgia means refers to pain in a bone. Oste- means "bone" and both -algia and -dynia mean "pain."

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Condyle

Condyle: (kòn´ dil) A term applied to bones, condyle comes from the Greek kondylos, meaning "a knuckle." It is a rounded process on a bone that usually serves to articulate with another bone.1

The adjective form is condylar. Some examples of condyles are given below.

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Bones Of The Adult Skeleton Part Two: The Upper Appendicular Skeleton

This is part two of our description of the 206 bones of the human body. Part one covered the axial skeleton, which comprises the vertebral column, the skull, and the thoracic cage. Part two will cover the upper appendicular skeleton, which is the 64 bones of the upper limbs and the bones which connect them to the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle. Part three will cover the lower appendicular skeleton.



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Bones Of The Adult Skeleton Part One: The Axial Skeleton

Go to Part Two: Upper Appendicular Skeleton

The following is part one of a list of of the 206 the bones of the human body, separated into the axial skeleton and its parts; and the appendicular skeleton and its parts.

This part one will cover the axial skeleton.

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Crepitus

Crepitus: Sometimes called crepitation, crepitus is when repeated crackling sensations or sounds come from a joint or tissue that can be associated with a fracture, swelling, or inflammation. These are palpable, and sometimes audible, crunching, grinding, creaking, grating or other rough sensations or sounds produced by joint movements, which can often be felt by a palpating hand placed over the moving part during active or passive movement. Although crepitus is usually a sign of pathological change in the tissues, and may be experienced as pops, snaps, or cracks, not all joint sounds on movement are a problem as sometimes clicking sounds or other sounds from a joint are normal, such as those that are commonly experienced in the normal knee. There is not always pain during crepitus and when there is pain which accompanies a joint noise or other sensation, the two events may not always be related.

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Osteon

Osteon: Also called Haversian system, the osteon is the primary organizing unit of skeletal bone. It is the outer portion of the inner canals of the bone, shaped like a long, narrow cylinder that is about 2mm wide and 10mm long. These cylinders are generally parallel to the long axis of the bone but sometime meander a bit. The bones of mammals, birds, and reptiles all contain these cylinders.

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Aspect (Anatomy)

Aspect: In anatomy, the term aspect refers to how a bone appears from a particular viewpoint or orientation. For instance, the "lateral aspect of the hip" would refer to the appearance of the hip as viewed from the side. The term is usually used, however, as simply another word for "surface." So that "pain in the lateral aspect of the hip" becomes "pain in the side of the hip."

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Periosteum

Periosteum: The periosteum is a fibrous thick, white, tough, and vascular, double membrane that surrounds the outside of bones. The prefix peri means "around" and osteum means bone. The outer layer of the periosteum is a tough, fibrous protective layer. The inner layer is the osteogenic layer and contains cells responsible for making new bone, osteoblasts, which are make new bone cells, and osteoclasts which break up and destroy bone. Together, the two types of cells regulate the amount of bone. The periosteum is firmly anchored to the bone by Sharpey's fibers. The fibers of the periosteum are continuous with the ligaments and tendons that are connected to it.

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Wolff's Law

Wolff's Law:A 19th century theory developed by German anatomist Julius Wolff. Wolff's law states that the remodeling and growth of bones is dependent on the mechanical loads placed on them, specifically the magnitude and direction of the forces applied.

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Mastoid Process of the Skull

The mastoid process is one of two projections in the lower rear of the skull that lie below each external auditory meatus on the mastoid portion of the temporal bone.1,2.

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