Biomechanics


Is the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratio Really Important?

Many strength trainees, bodybuilders, and exercisers are told that there should be a certain ratio between the strength of their hamstring and quadriceps muscles. Called the H/Q ratio and reported to be anywhere from .50 to .75 with a normative value of .60, the strength ratio of this important agonist/antagonist pairing is considered essential to the stability of the knee joint and to prevent ACL and other injuries. It is also sometimes thought to be predictive of those at risk for hamstring strain.

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Anatomical Direction Terms: A Glossary and Reference

Directional terms are widespread in all references concerning human performance, including anatomy, kinesiology, sports medicine, athletic training; and strength and bodybuilding coaching. At first, these terms can be confusing to the student of strength training but they are easy to understand once the fundamentals are studied.

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How Muscles Are Named

The various scientific names of the body's 600 to 650 or so muscles,1 at first, appear to be a bewildering hodgepodge of Greek and Latin. You may think that anatomists were just picking mysterious words out of an ancient hat in order to confuse you. That is not true at all, however. Although in some cases the methods used to name muscles are not very effective, the names of muscles are based on a naming system and, believe it or not, there is order and logic in how the muscles are identified. The more you are exposed to the study of skeletal muscles, the more you will begin to recognize the underlying structure. Often, knowing the meaning of the words will help you understand what muscle is being referred to just by its name. Sometimes, though, even knowing the meanings of the words will not help and all you can do is memorize them.

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Ulnar Deviation

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Anterior

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Equilibrium

Equilibrium is the state of a system that is not changing its speed or direction. At rest it is called static equilibrium and during movement it is called dynamic equilibrium. Equilibrium is often used interchangeably with balance but balance is the process of controlling movement during short or long periods rather than the the unchanging state itself, which is equilibrium.

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Diarthrosis Joints (Diarthrodial or Synovial)

Diarthrosis, Diarthrodial, or Synovial Joints: Diarthrosis is a joint classification used when considering joint function (degree of movement). These are joints which are freely moveable, meaning they allow a great deal of movement, such as the elbows, knees, and shoulders. In contrast, joints which allow only a slight degree of movement are called amphiarthrodial and those which allow no movement are called synarthrodial.

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Agonist

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Flat Back Posture

In the "flat back"1 postural alignment, the cervical spine is slightly extended, the upper thoracic spine is in flexion, the lower thoracic straight, the lumber straight (flexed) and the pelvis is posteriorly tilted. Bibliography item kendall not found. See Muscles: Testing and Function, with Posture and Pain by Kendall, et al.

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Anatomical Position (Reference Position)

Anatomical Position: Position of the body standing upright (erect) with all the joints extended, arms at the side, the palms and feet facing forward, and the fingers and thumb extended. In kinesiology and biomechanics, all body locations, positions, and movements are described according to this position, even if the person is not in the anatomical position. See the Anatomical Reference Position video below for more information and the article Anatomical Direction Terms: A Glossary and Reference.

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Adduction

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Abduction

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